Pic for finding the right doctorA list of Autoimmune diseases; although others are being added to the list all the time:

A
  • Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a form of encephalitis with an autoimmune reaction where the body attacks the brain tissue usually days/weeks after a viral infection or vaccination.
  • Addison’s disease – also called adrenal insufficiency or hypocortisolism, is chronic under-functioning of the adrenal glands and production of hormones affecting how the body uses carbohydrates, protein, fat and blood sugar.
    • Symptoms include weight loss, muscle weakness, fatigue and low blood pressure.
  • Allergic granulomatosis and angiitis Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) has 3 distinct phases – with symptoms depending on organs involved –Allergic with asthma, sinus pain, headache; Eosinophilic phase with weight loss and sweats; Vasculitic with pain, numbness & weakness in extremities.
  • Alopecia or Alopecia Areata (AA) results in loss of hair on scalp or beard or the skin as the immune system attacks the hair follicles and slows down hair production. It can occur in men, women or children.
  • Ankylosing spondylitis characterised by arthritis, inflammation and stiffness of joints. Usually involves the spine and joints of the neck, back and pelvis.  Also called Strümpell-Marie disease & spondyloarthritis.
  • Autoimmune chronic active hepatitis (CAH), or autoimmune hepatitis, is a disease of the liver usually occurring by itself, but sometimes with other autoimmune diseases e.g. lupus or APL syndrome. Symptoms include joint pain, fatigue and abdominal discomfort.
  • Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia causes the premature destruction of red blood cells fatigue, pale skin, shortness of breath, dark urine.
  • Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) symptoms usually include jaundice and sometimes the recent onset of diabetes mellitus, weight loss, abdominal pain or itching. A multisystem disorder, it can affect other parts of the body, such as the bile ducts or salivary glands.
  • Autoimmune retinopathy (AR) see Retinopathy
  • Autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura or Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) destroys platelets in the blood that are needed for prevention and control of bleeding. Symptoms include unexplained bruises or bleeding.
  • Autoimmune neutropenia means there are too few neutrophils (white blood cells) to fight infection so the risk of infection rises. Most common in infants. Usually fever symptoms
  • Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease (AIED) causes hearing loss and tinnitus.
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) is a type of hypercoagulability. Symptoms include thrombosis (blood clots in the deep veins of legs), arterial thrombosis (usually blood clots in the brain), recurrent pregnancy losses, and low platelet counts.
  • Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) regulates the death of lymphocytes (white blood cells). can lead to enlargement of liver and spleen and can cause anaemia, low count of platelets and low count of neutrophils.

B

  • Behcet’s syndrome with inflammation of blood vessels throughout the body has symptoms of swelling, redness, heat, and pain. Symptoms differ but can include mouth and genital ulcers, eye inflammation and skin problems. It can involve the intestines, heart and central nervous system.
  • Bullous pemphigoid causes itchy red irregular shaped skin eruptions that result in scarring. Sometimes the mucous membranes are involved.

C

  • Celiac disease responds to dietary proteins found in wheat, rye, and barley, this leads to inflammation of the small intestine and can cause diarrhoea, constipation, anaemia, fatigue, weakness, bone pain, and muscle cramps.
  • Cogan’s Syndrome has inflammation of the eye and ear with dizziness, tinnitus, headache, fever and joint pain.
  • Churg-Strauss Syndrome (CSS) or Allergic Granulomatosis Angiitis is inflammation of blood vessels increasing the white blood cells with late onset asthma then weight loss, fever, and night sweats   
  • Chronic bullous disease of childhood
  • Chronic inflammatory demyelinatingPolyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) causes swelling and destruction of myelin sheath over the nerves. Symptoms -weakness, paralysis, and/or impairment of movement in arms and legs. Sometimes numbness, tingling and burning sensations on both sides of the body.
  • Cicatricial pemphigoid (CP) small blisters or erosions on any mucous membrane including the nose, mouth, eyes (OCP), oesophagus, larynx, urethra and anus.
  • Central Nervous System Vasculitis inflames the blood vessels in the brain and spinal cord with symptoms including headaches. Can have sudden onset or be a waxing and waning condition
  • Crohn’s Disease – bowel disease with persistent inflammation of the lining or wall of the gastrointestinal tract.  Major symptoms include abdominal pain and diarrhoea.
  • Cryoglobulinemia a form of vasculitis which an immune response to chronic hepatitis C infection

D

  • Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) hasitchy bumps and blisters on the scalp, buttocks, elbows and knees of people with celiac disease.
  • Dermatomyositis has rash on face, neck, shoulders, upper chest, elbows, knees, knuckles, back and progressive muscle weakness  particularly in the muscles closest to the trunk Myosotis
  • Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) in which round red lumps appear on the skin

E F G

  • Encephalomyelitis inflammation of the brain and spinal cord describing a number of disorders
  • Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) blisters on the skin  
  • Erythema nodosum has red, painful lumps on the legs below the knees.
  • Evans syndrome where an individual’s antibodies attack their own red blood cells and/or platelets
  • Giant Cell Arteritis see Temporal arteritis
  • Graft-versus-host disease
  • Graves disease increases the production of thyroid hormone which controls metabolism. Symptoms include nervousness, heat intolerance, diarrhoea, sweating, insomnia, and weight loss with increased appetite.  
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome affects the body’s immune system attacking the nervous system and causing a neuromuscular disease with initial symptoms of weakness and tingling starting in legs and rapid progression to paralysis in legs, arms, face and breathing muscles.

H I

  • Hanot Syndrome see Primary biliary Cirrhosis
  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis also called autoimmune thyroiditis and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is a chronic inflammation of the thyroid.
  • Hypersensitivity Vasculitis (HV) or small vessel vasculitis has red spots usually on forearms and legs may be caused by sensitivity to a drug taken.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease, also called colitis, enteritis and ileitis. Refers to chronic, autoimmune, inflammatory diseases of the bowel, mainly ulcerative colitis and Crohn‘s disease.
  • Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus attacks the pancreas and usually begins in childhood or young adulthood Type 1 diabetes.
  • Isolated vasculitis of the Central nervous system or CNS Vasculitis – inflames the blood vessels in the brain and spinal cord with symptoms including headaches. Can have a sudden onset or can be a waxing and waning condition.   
  • Isaacs’ Syndrome: Neuromyotonia an Antibody-mediated Potassium Channelopathy with twitching of the muscles, increasing muscle stiffness and increased sweating.

J K

  • Kawasaki disease (KD) is a serious children’s disease with high fever, red eyes, body rash, swollen tongue, sore throat and swollen glands.

L  

  • Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) causes muscle weakness, usually first in the upper legs and upper arms. The attack interferes with the ability of nerves to send signals to muscles. A progressive syndrome it develops into eye muscles, and those involved in talking, chewing; sometimes dry mouth, constipation, impotence and bladder urgency.
  • Linear IgA disease 
  • Lupus– see Systemic lupus erythematosus  

M

  • Meniere’s Disease has a group of inner ear symptoms, including tinnitus (ringing in the ears), vertigo (dizziness), and a sensation of fullness or pressure in the ears possibly with hearing loss.
  • Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA) kidney inflammation, fatigue, purplish bumps spots on the skin, nerve damage and fevers.
  • Mixed connective tissue disease or MCTD causes joint pain, muscle weakness, cardiac, lung and skin manifestations, kidney disease, and dysfunction of the oesophagus
  • Monoclonal Gammopathy – means abnormal levels of a protein have been found in the blood
  • Myasthenia gravis – fluctuating muscle weakness and fatigue caused by circulating antibodies that block receptors at the neuromuscular junction. Usual involvement of eye muscles, chewing, talking and swallowing.
  • Multiple Sclerosis  attacks the central nervous system – brain and spinal cord – interfering with the nerves system signals and causing neurological symptoms. It can follow an unpredictable course.  You may experience only some of the symptoms and never have others. Symptoms may include numbness, tingling, pain, burning, and visual disturbances, tremor, difficulty walking, lack of coordination & constipation
  • Multifocal motor neuropathy with Conduction blocks a progressive muscle disorder that often starts with weakness in the hands.  It usually affects one side of the body differently and affects men more than women. 

 N

  • Neuromyotonia or Isaac’s syndrome has stiffness and cramping in the limbs, involuntary twitching of the muscles, muscles not relaxing even during sleep and fatigue.
  • Neutropenia see Autoimmune Neutropenia

O

  • Oophoritis– it is inflammation of ovaries resulting in the destruction of the ovaries and a loss of fertility.   
  • Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome causes unsteady gait, muscle spasms and irregular eye movements. Difficulty speaking may also be involved. Often seen in children less than 2 years old
  • orchitis is an inflammation of the testis with mild testicular pain or swelling, resulting in infertility. 

P

  • Palindromic Rheumatism an episodic form of arthritis believed to be connected to RA and Antiphospholipid Syndrome
  • Paraneoplastic neurologic disorders  
  • Pemphigus Vulgaris causes blister formations in the skin and the mucous membranes and begins with blisters in the mouth and on the scalp
  • Pemphigus follaceus (PF) is a blistering disease. It is milder than Pemphigus Vulgaris. Blisters are mainly on chest, back, face and scalp. Healthy appearing skin blisters when rubbed.
  • Pemphigoid gestationis (PG) is a rare autoimmune bullous dermatosis of pregnancy. The inflammatory response is manifested by redness, itching and blisters.
  • Pernicious anaemia prevents the absorption of B 12 vitamin causing, paleness, weakness and nerve damage. 
  • Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is the rarest and serious form of pemphigus and is often found in people with cancer. Painful sores in the mouth, lips and oesophagus.
  • Polyangiitis – see Microscopic polyangiitis
  • Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) inflames the arteries. Areas affected can include muscles, joints, intestines, nerves, kidneys, and skin. symptoms can include fatigue, weight loss, and fever.
  • Polymyositis/dermatomyositis are neuromuscular diseases. They are sometimes referred to as connective tissue diseases that occur in all ages and both sexes. Limb (proximal) and neck weakness, sometimes with muscle pain. Dermatomyositis has skin rashes on the face and upper chest.  Usually an elevated blood level of CPK.
  • Polymyalgia Rheumatica – A Syndrome of moderate to severe pain and stiffness in the shoulders and hips.
  • Primary biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) also called Hanot Syndrome,  is a chronic liver disease, where the body destroys the cells lining the bile ducts in the liver. 
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) symptoms are itching, fatigue and yellowing of the eyes or skin.
  • Psoriasis is a skin problem that causes skin cells to grow too quickly, resulting in thick patches of skin.  

Q R  

  • Raynaud’s phenomenon affects the blood vessels in the fingers, toes, ears, and nose with colour changes of the skin (white, blue or red). Often with cold-induced numbness (pins and needles sensation) of the fingers and toes.
  • Recoverin-associated retinopathy(RAR) see Retinopathy
  • Reactive Arthritis formerly known as Reiter’s syndrome has inflammation and pain in the joints, conjunctivitis and urinary symptoms usually after an infection.
  • Retinopathy causes retinal degeneration with rapid, painless vision loss associated with sensitivity to light. Similar to cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) but without a detectable underlying cancer.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease that causes stiffness, pain, loss of mobility and inflammation of the joints. It usually affects hands and wrists and sometimes elbows, neck, shoulders, hips, knees, and feet. Other symptoms include fatigue & a sense of not feeling well.

S

  • Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease characterised by small round spots of dead tissue. Sometimes misdiagnosed as tuberculosis.
  • Sclerosing cholangitis see Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
  • Sjogren’s syndrome affects the tear, salivary, and other moisture-producing glands, thus destroying the glands and their ability to produce moisture. Other organs can be affected such as the lungs, brain, nerves, joints, kidneys, thyroid, and liver.
  • Systemic necrotizing vasculitides
  • Stiff man syndrome or Moersch-Woltmann syndrome involves the central nervous system and causes progressive rigidity or stiffness of the body – affects the voluntary muscles of the neck, shoulders, trunk, arms & legs sometimes with muscle spasms.
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus long-lasting attack on normal tissue causing varied symptoms of fatigue, fever and pain but almost always with skin rashes, kidney problems and sensitivity to sunlight which worsens the symptoms.
  • Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) affects connective tissues (skin, ligaments, cartilage and bone), with an overproduction of the protein collagen making the skin thick and hard.

T

  • Temporal arteritis or giant cell arteritis (GCV) is characterised by vasculitis that causes headaches, vision problems, joint pain, facial pain and fever. It can be localised in the temples or affect the whole body.
  • Takayasu’s arteritis is similar to temporal arteritis but affects young adults, usually 15 to 20 years of age
  • Thromboangiitis obliterans or Buerger’s disease is an inflammation and clotting of the veins and arteries in the hands and feet causing pain and associated with tobacco use.
  • Thyroiditis with hypothyroidism
  • Thyroiditis with hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland) is Graves’ disease which increases production of thyroid hormone. Symptoms include nervousness, heat intolerance, diarrhoea, sweating, insomnia, and weight loss with increased appetite.
  • Type I autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (PAS) In PAS the immune system attacks the endocrine system -‘Endocrine glands include the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands, the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas, and the ovaries and testes’.
  • Type II autoimmune polyglandular syndrome 

U V

  • Vasculitis involves blood vessels in the skin and in the body. Symptoms depend on the type of vasculitis present. It can cause tender lumps on the skin, open sores and high blood pressure.

W

  • Wegener’s granulomatosis – inflamed blood vessels(vasculitis). Can involve any organ system, but mainly the respiratory tract (sinuses, nose and lungs) and kidneys. First symptoms include upper respiratory tract symptoms such as sinus with joint pains, weakness, and tiredness.